Περὶ τῆς Ἀθηναίων πολιτείας.   "Constitution of the Athenians"

 

by Psuedo-Xenophon = 'the Old Oligarch'

 

Karl Maurer, (office) 215 Carpenter, (972) 252-5289, (email) filokalos@aol.com

 

 

This Unicode text is basically that of U. Harsch, copied from his Bibliotheca Augustana at

http://www.fh-augsburg.de/~harsch/graeca/Chronologia/S_ante05/Pseudoxenophon/pse_text.html .  The commentary that follows is mine.

 

      [I. 1] Περὶ δὲ τῆς Ἀθηναίων πολιτείας, ὅτι μὲν εἵλοντο τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον τῆς πολιτείας, οὐκ ἐπαινῶ διὰ τόδε ὅτι ταῦθ' ἑλόμενοι εἵλοντο τοὺς πονηροὺς ἄμεινον πράττειν ἢ τοὺς χρηστούς, διὰ μὲν οὖν τοῦτο οὐκ ἐπαινῶ· ἐπεὶ δὲ ταῦτα ἔδοξεν οὕτως αὐτοῖς, ὡς εὖ διασῴζονται τὴν πολιτείαν καὶ τἆλλα διαπράττονται ἃ δοκοῦσιν ἁμαρτάνειν τοῖς ἄλλοις Ἕλλησι, τοῦτ' ἀποδείξω.

      [2] Πρῶτον μὲν οὖν τοῦτο ἐρῶ ὅτι δικαίως αὐτόθι <δί>και<οι> οἱ πένητες καὶ ὁ δῆμος πλέον ἔχειν τῶν γενναίων καὶ τῶν πλουσίων διὰ τόδε, ὅτι ὁ δῆμός ἐστιν ὁ ἐλαύνων τὰς ναῦς καὶ ὁ τὴν δύναμιν περιτιθεὶς τῇ πόλει, καὶ οἱ κυβερνῆται καὶ οἱ κελευσταὶ καὶ οἱ πεντηκόνταρχοι καὶ οἱ πρῳρᾶται καὶ οἱ ναυπηγοί - οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ τὴν δύναμιν περιτιθέντες τῇ πόλει πολὺ μᾶλλον ἢ οἱ <ὁπ>λῖται καὶ οἱ γενναῖοι καὶ οἱ χρηστοί. ἐπειδὴ οὖν ταῦτα οὕτως ἔχει, δοκεῖ δίκαιον εἶναι πᾶσι τῶν ἀρχῶν μετεῖναι ἔν τε τῷ κλήρῳ καὶ ἐν τῇ χειροτονίᾳ καὶ λέγειν ἐξεῖναι τῷ βουλομένῳ τῶν πολιτῶν.

      [3] ἔπειτα ὁπόσαι μὲν σωτηρίαν φέρουσι τῶν ἀρχῶν χρησταὶ οὖσαι καὶ μὴ χρησταὶ κίνδυνον τῷ δήμῳ ἅπαντι, τούτων μὲν τῶν ἀρχῶν οὐδὲν δεῖται ὁ δῆμος μετεῖναι· (οὔτε τῶν στρατηγιῶν κλήρῳ οἴονται σφίσι χρῆναι μετεῖναι οὔτε τῶν ἱππαρχιῶν)· γιγνώσκει γὰρ ὁ δῆμος ὅτι πλείω ὠφελεῖται ἐν τῷ μὴ αὐτὸς ἄρχειν ταύτας τὰς ἀρχάς, ἀλλ' ἐᾶν τοὺς δυνατωτάτους ἄρχειν· ὁπόσαι δ' εἰσὶν ἀρχαὶ μισθοφορίας ἕνεκα καὶ ὠφελ[ε]ίας εἰς τὸν οἶκον, ταύτας ζητεῖ ὁ δῆμος ἄρχειν.

      [4] ἔπειτα δὲ ὃ ἔνιοι θαυμάζουσιν ὅτι πανταχοῦ πλέον νέμουσι τοῖς πονηροῖς καὶ πένησι καὶ δημοτικοῖς ἢ τοῖς χρηστοῖς, ἐν αὐτῷ τούτῳ φανοῦνται τὴν δημοκρατίαν διασῴζοντες. οἱ μὲν γὰρ πένητες καὶ οἱ δημόται καὶ οἱ χείρους εὖ πράττοντες καὶ πολλοὶ οἱ τοιοῦτοι γιγνόμενοι τὴν δημοκρατίαν αὔξουσιν· ἐὰν δὲ εὖ πράττωσιν οἱ πλούσιοι καὶ οἱ χρηστοί, ἰσχυρὸν τὸ ἐναντίον σφίσιν αὐτοῖς καθιστᾶσιν οἱ δημοτικοί.

      [5] ἔστι δὲ πάσῃ γῇ τὸ βέλτιστον ἐναντίον τῇ δημοκρατίᾳ· ἐν γὰρ τοῖς βελτίστοις ἔνι ἀκολασία τε ὀλιγίστη καὶ ἀδικία, ἀκρίβεια δὲ πλείστη εἰς τὰ χρηστά, ἐν δὲ τῷ δήμῳ ἀμαθία τε πλείστη καὶ ἀταξία καὶ πονηρία· ἥ τε γὰρ πενία αὐτοὺς μᾶλλον ἄγει ἐπὶ τὰ αἰσχρὰ καὶ ἡ ἀπαιδευσία καὶ [ἡ] ἀμαθία - <ἡ> δι' ἔνδειαν χρημάτων ἐνίοις τῶν ἀνθρώπων.

      [6] εἴποι δ' ἄν τις ὡς ἐχρῆν αὐτοὺς μὴ ἐᾶν λέγειν πάντας ἑξῆς μηδὲ βουλεύειν, ἀλλὰ τοὺς δεξιωτάτους καὶ ἄνδρας ἀρίστους· οἱ δὲ καὶ ἐν τούτῳ ἄριστα βουλεύονται ἐῶντες καὶ τοὺς πονηροὺς λέγειν. εἰ μὲν γὰρ οἱ χρηστοὶ ἔλεγον καὶ ἐβουλεύοντο, τοῖς ὁμοίοις σφίσιν αὐτοῖς ἦν ἀγαθά, τοῖς δὲ δημοτικοῖς οὐκ ἀγαθά· νῦν δὲ λέγων ὁ βουλόμενος ἀναστὰς ἄνθρωπος πονηρὸς ἐξευρίσκει τὸ ἀγαθὸν αὑτῷ τε καὶ τοῖς ὁμοίοις αὑτῷ.

      [7] εἴποι τις ἄν, τί ἂν οὖν γνοίη ἀγαθὸν αὑτῷ ἢ τῷ δήμῳ τοιοῦτος ἄνθρωπος; οἳ δὲ γιγνώσκουσιν ὅτι ἡ τούτου ἀμαθία καὶ πονηρία καὶ εὔνοια μᾶλλον λυσιτελεῖ ἢ ἡ τοῦ χρηστοῦ ἀρετὴ καὶ σοφία καὶ κακόνοια.

      [8] εἴη μὲν οὖν ἂν πόλις οὐκ ἀπὸ τοιούτων διαιτημάτων ἡ βελτίστη, ἀλλ' ἡ δημοκρατία μάλιστ' ἂν σῴζοιτο οὕτως. ὁ γὰρ δῆμος βούλεται οὐκ εὐνομουμένης τῆς πόλεως αὐτὸς δουλεύειν, ἀλλ' ἐλεύθερος εἶναι καὶ ἄρχειν, τῆς δὲ κακονομίας αὐτῷ ὀλίγον μέλει· ὃ γὰρ σὺ νομίζεις οὐκ εὐνομεῖσθαι, αὐτὸς ἀπὸ τούτου ἰσχύει ὁ δῆμος καὶ ἐλεύθερός ἐστιν.

      [9] εἰ δ' εὐνομίαν ζητεῖς, πρῶτα μὲν ὄψει τοὺς δεξιωτάτους αὐτοῖς τοὺς νόμους τιθέντας· ἔπειτα κολάσουσιν οἱ χρηστοὶ τοὺς πονηροὺς καὶ βουλεύσουσιν οἱ χρηστοὶ περὶ τῆς πόλεως καὶ οὐκ ἐάσουσι μαινομένους ἀνθρώπους βουλεύειν οὐδὲ λέγειν οὐδὲ ἐκκλησιάζειν. ἀπὸ τούτων τοίνυν τῶν ἀγαθῶν τάχιστ' ἂν ὁ δῆμος εἰς δουλείαν καταπέσοι.

      [10] Τῶν δούλων δ' αὖ καὶ τῶν μετοίκων πλείστη ἐστὶν Ἀθήνησιν ἀκολασία καὶ οὔτε πατάξαι ἔξεστιν αὐτόθι οὔτε ὑπεκστήσεταί σοι ὁ δοῦλος. οὗ δ' ἕνεκέν ἐστι τοῦτο ἐπιχώριον, ἐγὼ φράσω· εἰ νόμος ἦν τὸν δοῦλον ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλευθέρου τύπτεσθαι ἢ τὸν μέτοικον ἢ τὸν ἀπελεύθερον, πολλάκις ἂν οἰηθεὶς εἶναι τὸν Ἀθηναῖον δοῦλον ἐπάταξεν ἄν· ἐσθῆτά τε γὰρ οὐδὲν βέλτιoν ὁ δῆμος αὐτόθι ἢ οἱ δοῦλοι καὶ οἱ μέτοικοι καὶ τὰ εἴδη οὐδὲν βελτίους εἰσίν.

      [11] εἰ δέ τις καὶ τοῦτο θαυμάζει ὅτι ἐῶσι τοὺς δούλους τρυφᾶν αὐτόθι καὶ μεγαλοπρεπῶς διαιτᾶσθαι ἐνίους, καὶ τοῦτο γνώμῃ φανεῖεν ἂν ποιοῦντες. ὅπου γὰρ ναυτικὴ δύναμίς ἐστιν, ἀπὸ χρημάτων ἀνάγκη τοῖς ἀνδραπόδοις δουλεύειν, ἵνα λαμβάνω <ὧν> μὲν πράττῃ τὰς ἀποφοράς, καὶ ἐλευθέρους ἀφιέναι· ὅπου δ' εἰσὶ πλούσιοι δοῦλοι, οὐκέτι ἐνταῦθα λυσιτελεῖ τὸν ἐμὸν δοῦλον σὲ δεδιέναι· ἐν δὲ τῇ Λακεδαίμονι ὁ ἐμὸς δοῦλος σὲ δεδοίκει· ἐὰν δὲ δεδίῃ ὁ σὸς δοῦλος ἐμέ, κινδυνεύσει καὶ τὰ χρήματα διδόναι τὰ ἑαυτοῦ ὥστε μὴ κινδυνεύειν περὶ ἑαυτοῦ.

      [12] διὰ τοῦτ' οὖν ἰσηγορίαν καὶ τοῖς δούλοις πρὸς τοὺς ἐλευθέρους ἐποιήσαμεν, καὶ τοῖς μετοίκοις πρὸς τοὺς ἀστούς, διότι δεῖται ἡ πόλις μετοίκων διά τε τὸ πλῆθος τῶν τεχνῶν καὶ διὰ τὸ ναυτικόν· διὰ τοῦτο οὖν καὶ τοῖς μετοίκοις εἰκότως τὴν ἰσηγορίαν ἐποιήσαμεν.

      [13] Τοὺς δὲ γυμναζομένους αὐτόθι καὶ τὴν μουσικὴν ἐπιτηδεύοντας καταλέλυκεν ὁ δῆμος νομίζων τοῦτο οὐ καλὸν εἶναι γνοὺς ὅτι οὐ δυνατὸς ταῦτά ἐστιν ἐπιτηδεύειν. ἐν ταῖς χορηγίαις αὖ καὶ γυμνασιαρχίαις καὶ τριηραρχίαις γιγνώσκουσιν ὅτι χορηγοῦσι μὲν οἱ πλούσιοι, χορηγεῖται δὲ ὁ δῆμος, καὶ γυμνασιαρχοῦσι <μὲν> καὶ τριηραρχοῦσιν οἱ πλούσιοι, ὁ δὲ δῆμος τριηραρχεῖται καὶ γυμνασιαρχεῖται. ἀξιοῖ γοῦν ἀργύριον λαμβάνειν ὁ δῆμος καὶ ᾄδων καὶ τρέχων καὶ ὀρχούμενος καὶ πλέων ἐν ταῖς ναυσίν, ἵνα αὐτός τε ἔχῃ καὶ οἱ πλούσιοι πενέστεροι γίγνωνται· ἔν τε τοῖς δικαστηρίοις οὐ τοῦ δικαίου αὐτοῖς μᾶλλον μέλει ἢ τοῦ αὑτοῖς συμφόρου.

 

[Περὶ τῶν συμμάχων]

      [14] Περὶ δὲ τῶν συμμάχων, ὅτι <οἱ> πλέον[τ]ες συκοφαντοῦσιν, ὡς δοκοῦσι, καὶ μισοῦσι τοὺς χρηστούς, - γιγνώσκοντες ὅτι μισεῖσθαι μὲν ἀνάγκη τὸν ἄρχοντα ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀρχομένου, εἰ δὲ ἰσχύσουσιν οἱ πλούσιοι καὶ οἱ <χρηστ>οὶ ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν, ὀλίγιστον χρόνον ἡ ἀρχὴ ἔσται τοῦ δήμου τοῦ Ἀθήνησι, διὰ ταῦτα οὖν τοὺς μὲν χρηστοὺς ἀτιμοῦσι καὶ χρήματα ἀφαιροῦνται καὶ ἐξελαύνονται καὶ ἀποκτείνουσι, τοὺς δὲ πονηροὺς αὔξουσιν. οἱ δὲ χρηστοὶ Ἀθηναίων τοὺς χρηστοὺς ἐν ταῖς συμμαχίσι πόλεσι σῴζουσι γιγνώσκοντες ὅτι σφίσιν ἀγαθόν ἐστι τοὺς βελτίστους σῴζειν ἀεὶ ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν.

      [15] εἴποι δέ τις ἂν ὅτι ἰσχύς ἐστιν αὕτη Ἀθηναίων, ἐὰν οἱ σύμμαχοι δυνατοὶ ὦσι χρήματα εἰσφέρειν· τοῖς δὲ δημοτικοῖς δοκεῖ μεῖζον ἀγαθὸν εἶναι τὰ τῶν συμμάχων χρήματα ἕνα ἕκαστον Ἀθηναίων ἔχειν, ἐκείνους δέ, ὅσον ζῆν, καὶ ἐργάζεσθαι ἀδυνάτους ὄντας ἐπιβουλεύειν.

      [16] Δοκεῖ δὲ ὁ δῆμος ὁ Ἀθηναίων καὶ ἐν τῷδε κακῶς βουλεύεσθαι, ὅτι τοὺς συμμάχους ἀναγκάζουσι πλεῖν ἐπὶ δίκας Ἀθήναζε.  οἳ δὲ ἀντιλογίζονται ὅσα ἐν τούτῳ ἔνεστι ἀγαθὰ τῷ δήμῳ τῷ Ἀθηναίων· πρῶτον μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν πρυτανείων τὸν μισθὸν δι' ἐνιαυτοῦ λαμβάνειν. εἶτ' οἴκοι καθήμενοι ἄνευ νεῶν ἔκπλου διοικοῦσι τὰς πόλεις τὰς συμμαχίδας, καὶ τοὺς μὲν τοῦ δήμου σῴζουσι, τοὺς δ' ἐναντίους ἀπολλύουσιν ἐν τοῖς δικαστηρίοις· εἰ δὲ οἴκοι εἶχον ἕκαστοι τὰς δίκας, ἅτε ἀχθόμενοι Ἀθηναίοις τούτους ἂν σφῶν αὐτῶν ἀπώλλυσαν οἵτινες φίλοι μάλιστα ἦσαν Ἀθηναίων τῷ δήμῳ.

      [17] πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ὁ δῆμος τῶν Ἀθηναίων τάδε κερδαίνει τῶν δικῶν Ἀθήνησιν οὐσῶν τοῖς συμμάχοις· πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ ἡ ἑκατοστὴ τῇ πόλει πλείων ἡ ἐν Πειραιεῖ· ἔπειτα εἴ τῳ συνοικία ἐστίν, ἄμεινον πράττειν· ἔπειτα εἴ τῳ ζεῦγός ἐστιν ἢ ἀνδράποδον μισθοφοροῦν· ἔπειτα οἱ κήρυκες ἄμεινον πράττουσι διὰ τὰς ἐπιδημίας τὰς τῶν συμμάχων.

      [18] πρὸς δὲ τούτοις, εἰ μὲν μὴ ἐπὶ δίκας ᾔεσαν οἱ σύμμαχοι, τοὺς ἐκπλέοντας Ἀθηναίων ἐτίμων ἂν μόνους, τούς τε στρατηγοὺς καὶ τοὺς τριηράρχους καὶ πρέσβεις· νῦν δ' ἠνάγκασται τὸν δῆμον κολακεύειν τὸν Ἀθηναίων εἷς ἕκαστος τῶν συμμάχων γιγνώσκων ὅτι δεῖ μὲν ἀφικόμενον Ἀθήναζε δίκην δοῦναι καὶ λαβεῖν οὐκ ἐν ἄλλοις τισὶν ἀλλ' ἐν τῷ δήμῳ, ὅς ἐστι δὴ νόμος Ἀθήνησι· καὶ ἀντιβολῆσαι ἀναγκάζεται ἐν τοῖς δικαστηρίοις καὶ εἰσιόντος του ἐπιλαμβάνεσθαι τῆς χειρός. διὰ τοῦτο οὖν οἱ σύμμαχοι δοῦλοι τοῦ δήμου τῶν Ἀθηναίων καθεστᾶσι μᾶλλον.

 

[Περὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς τῆς θαλάττης]


      [19] Πρὸς δὲ τούτοις διὰ τὴν κτῆσιν τὴν ἐν τοῖς ὑπερορίοις καὶ διὰ τὰς ἀρχὰς τὰς εἰς τὴν ὑπερορίαν λελήθασι μανθάνοντες ἐλαύνειν τῇ κώπῃ αὐτοί τε καὶ οἱ ἀκόλουθοι· ἀνάγκη γὰρ ἄνθρωπον πολλάκις πλέοντα κώπην λαβεῖν καὶ αὐτὸν καὶ τὸν οἰκέτην καὶ ὀνόματα μαθεῖν τὰ ἐν τῇ ναυτικῇ·

      [20] καὶ κυβερνῆται ἀγαθοὶ γίγνονται δι' ἐμπειρίαν τε τῶν πλόων καὶ διὰ μελέτην· ἐμελέτησαν δὲ οἳ μὲν πλοῖον κυβερνῶντες, οἳ δὲ ὁλκάδα, οἳ δ' ἐντεῦθεν ἐπὶ τριήρεσι κατέστησαν· οἳ δὲ πολλοὶ ἐλαύνειν εὐθέως οἷοί τε ἐσβάντες εἰς ναῦς, ἅτε ἐν παντὶ τῷ βίῳ προμεμελετηκότες.

 

      [II. 1] τὸ δὲ ὁπλιτικὸν αὐτοῖς, ὃ ἥκιστα δοκεῖ εὖ ἔχειν Ἀθήνησιν, οὕτω καθέστηκεν καὶ τῶν μὲν πολεμίων ἥττους τε σφᾶς αὐτοὺς ἡγοῦνται εἶναι καὶ <ὀλ>είζους, τῶν δὲ συμμάχων, οἳ φέρουσι τὸν φόρον, καὶ κατὰ γῆν κρατιστοί εἰσι· καὶ νομίζουσι τὸ ὁπλιτικὸν ἀρ<κ>εῖν, εἰ τῶν συμμάχων κρείττονές εἰσι.

      [2] πρὸς δὲ καὶ κατὰ τύχην τι αὐτοῖς τοιοῦτον καθέστηκε· τοῖς μὲν κατὰ γῆν ἀρχομένοις οἷόν τ' ἐστὶν ἐκ μικρῶν πόλεων συνοικισθέντας ἁθρόους μάχεσθαι· τοῖς δὲ κατὰ θάλατταν ἀρχομένοις, ὅσοι νησιῶταί εἰσιν, οὐχ οἷόν τε συνάρασθαι εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ τὰς πόλεις· ἡ γὰρ θάλαττα ἐν τῷ μέσῳ, οἱ δὲ κρατοῦντες θαλασσοκράτορές εἰσιν· εἰ δ' οἷόν τε καὶ λαθεῖν συνελθοῦσιν εἰς ταὐτὸ τοῖς νησιώταις εἰς μίαν νῆσον, ἀπολοῦνται λιμῷ·

      [3] ὁπόσαι δ' ἐν τῇ ἠπείρῳ εἰσὶ πόλεις ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἀρχόμεναι, αἱ μὲν μεγάλαι διὰ δέος ἄρχονται, αἱ δὲ μικραὶ πάνυ διὰ χρείαν· οὐ γὰρ ἔστι πόλις οὐδεμία ἥτις οὐ δεῖται εἰσάγεσθαί τι ἢ ἐξάγεσθαι· ταῦτα τοίνυν οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῇ, ἐὰν μὴ ὑπήκοος ᾖ τῶν ἀρχόντων τῆς θαλάττης.

      [4] ἔπειτα δὲ τοῖς ἄρχουσι τῆς θαλάττης οἷόν τ' ἐστὶ ποιεῖν ἅπερ τοῖς τῆς γῆς ἐνίοτε, τέμνειν τὴν γῆν τῶν κρειττόνων· παραπλεῖν γὰρ ἔξεστιν ὅπου ἂν μηδεὶς ᾖ πολέμιος ἢ ὅπου ἂν ὀλίγοι, ἐὰν δὲ προσίωσιν, ἀναβάντα ἀποπλεῖν· καὶ τοῦτο ποιῶν ἧττον ἀπορεῖ ἢ ὁ πεζῇ παρα<π>οή<σ>ων.

      [5] ἔπειτα δὲ τοῖς μὲν κατὰ θάλατταν ἄρχουσιν οἷόν τε ἀποπλεῦσαι ἀπὸ τῆς σφετέρας αὐτῶν ὁπόσον βούλει πλοῦν, τοῖς δὲ κατὰ γῆν οὐχ οἷόν τε ἀπὸ τῆς σφετέρας αὐτῶν ἀπελθεῖν πολλῶν ἡμερῶν ὁδόν· βραδεῖαί τε γὰρ αἱ πορεῖαι καὶ σῖτον οὐχ οἷόν τε ἔχειν πολλοῦ χρόνου πεζῇ ἰόντα· καὶ τὸν μὲν πεζῇ ἰόντα δεῖ διὰ φιλίας ἰέναι ἢ νικᾶν μαχόμενον, τὸν δὲ πλέοντα, οὗ μὲν ἂν ᾖ κρείττων, ἔξεστιν ἀποβῆναι, οὗ δ' ἂν μὴ ᾖ, μὴ ἀποβῆναι ταύτῃ[ς] τῆς γῆς, ἀλλὰ παραπλεῦσαι, ἕως ἂν ἐπὶ φιλίαν χώραν ἀφίκηται ἢ ἐπὶ ἥττους αὑτοῦ.

      [6] ἔπειτα νόσους τῶν καρπῶν, αἳ ἐκ Διός εἰσιν, οἱ μὲν κατὰ γῆν κράτιστοι χαλεπῶς φέρουσιν, οἱ δὲ κατὰ θάλατταν ῥᾳδίως· οὐ γὰρ ἅμα πᾶσα γῆ νοσεῖ, ὥστε ἐκ τῆς εὐθ<ε>νούσης ἀφικνεῖται <ὧν ἡ νοσοῦσα δεῖται> τοῖς τῆς θαλάττης ἄρχουσιν.

      [7] Εἰ δὲ δεῖ καὶ σμικροτέρων μνησθῆναι, διὰ τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς θαλάττης πρῶτον μὲν τρόπους εὐωχιῶν ἐξηῦρον ἐπιμισγόμενοι ἄλλῃ <ἄλ>λοις· ὅ τι τ' ἐν Σικελίᾳ ἡδὺ ἢ ἐν Ἰταλίᾳ ἢ ἐν Κύπρῳ ἢ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ἢ ἐν Λυδίᾳ ἢ ἐν τῷ Πόντῳ ἢ ἐν Πελοποννήσῳ ἢ ἄλλοθί που, ταῦτα πάντα εἰς ἓν ἥθροισ<τ>αι διὰ τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς θαλάττης.

      [8] ἔπειτα φωνὴν πᾶσαν ἀκούοντες ἐξελέξαντο τοῦτο μὲν ἐκ τῆς τοῦτο δὲ ἐκ τῆς· καὶ οἱ μὲν Ἕλληνες ἰδίᾳ μᾶλλον καὶ φωνῇ καὶ διαίτῃ καὶ σχήματι χρῶνται, Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ κεκραμένῃ ἐξ ἁπάντων τῶν Ἑλλήνων καὶ βαρβάρων.

      [9] θυσίας δὲ καὶ ἱερὰ καὶ ἑορτὰς καὶ τεμένη γνοὺς ὁ δῆμος ὅτι οὐχ οἷόν τέ ἐστιν ἑκάστῳ τῶν πενήτων θύειν καὶ εὐωχεῖσθαι καὶ <ἵσ>τασθαι ἱερὰ καὶ πόλιν οἰκεῖν καλὴν καὶ μεγάλην, ἐξηῦρεν ὅτῳ τρόπῳ ἔσται ταῦτα. θύουσιν οὖν δημοσίᾳ μὲν ἡ πόλις ἱερεῖα πολλά· ἔστι δὲ ὁ δῆμος ὁ εὐωχούμενος καὶ διαλαγχάνων τὰ ἱερεῖα.

      [10] καὶ γυμνάσια καὶ λουτρὰ καὶ ἀποδυτήρια τοῖς μὲν πλουσίοις ἐστὶν ἰδίᾳ ἐνίοις, ὁ δὲ δῆμος αὐτὸς αὑτῷ οἰκοδομεῖται ἰδίᾳ παλαίστρας πολλάς, ἀποδυτήρια, λουτρῶνας· καὶ πλείω τούτων ἀπολαύει ὁ ὄχλος ἢ οἱ ὀλίγοι καὶ οἱ εὐδαίμονες.

      [11] Τὸν δὲ πλοῦτον μόνοι οἷοί τ' εἰσὶν ἔχειν τῶν Ἑλλήνων καὶ τῶν βαρβάρων. εἰ γάρ τις πόλις πλουτεῖ ξύλοις ναυπηγησίμοις, ποῖ διαθήσεται, ἐὰν μὴ πείσῃ τοὺς ἄρχοντας τῆς θαλάττης; τί δ'; εἴ τις σιδήρῳ ἢ χαλκῷ ἢ λίνῳ πλουτεῖ πόλις, ποῖ διαθήσεται, ἐὰν μὴ πείσῃ τὸν ἄρχοντα τῆς θαλάττης; ἐξ αὐτῶν μέντοι τούτων καὶ δὴ νῆές μοί εἰσι, παρὰ μὲν τοῦ ξύλα, παρὰ δὲ τοῦ σίδηρος, παρὰ δὲ τοῦ χαλκός, παρὰ δὲ τοῦ λίνον, παρὰ δὲ τοῦ κηρός.

      [12] πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ἄλλοσε ἄγειν οὐκ ἐάσουσιν, <ἢ> οἵτινες ἀντίπαλοι ἡμῖν εἰσιν [ἢ] οὐ χρήσονται τῇ θαλάττῃ. καὶ ἐγὼ μὲν οὐδὲν ποιῶν ἐκ τῆς γῆς πάντα ταῦτα ἔχω διὰ τὴν θάλατταν, ἄλλη δ' οὐδεμία πόλις δύο τούτων ἔχει, οὐδ' ἐστὶ τῇ αὐτῇ ξύλα καὶ λίνον, ἀλλ' ὅπου λίνον ἐστὶ πλεῖστον, λεία χώρα καὶ ἄξυλος· οὐδὲ χαλκὸς καὶ σίδηρος ἐκ τῆς αὐτῆς πόλεως οὐδὲ τἆλλα δύο ἢ τρία μιᾷ πόλει, ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν τῇ τὸ δὲ τῇ.

      [13] Ἔτι δὲ πρὸς τούτοις παρὰ πᾶσαν ἤπειρόν ἐστιν ἢ ἀκτὴ προύχουσα ἢ νῆσος προκειμένη ἢ στενόπορόν τι· ὥστε ἔξεστιν ἐνταῦθα ἐφορμοῦσι τοῖς τῆς θαλάττης ἄρχουσι λωβᾶσθαι τοὺς τὴν ἤπειρον οἰκοῦντας.

      [14] Ἑνὸς δὲ ἐνδεεῖς εἰσιν· εἰ γὰρ νῆσον οἰκοῦντες θαλασσοκράτορες ἦσαν Ἀθηναῖοι, ὑπῆρχεν ἂν αὐτοῖς ποιεῖν μὲν κακῶς, εἰ ἐβούλοντο, πάσχειν δὲ μηδέν, ἕως τῆς θαλάττης ἦρχον, μηδὲ τμηθῆναι τὴν ἑαυτῶν γῆν μηδὲ προσδέχεσθαι τοὺς πολεμίους· νῦν δὲ οἱ γεωργοῦντες καὶ οἱ πλούσιοι Ἀθηναίων ὑπέρχονται τοὺς πολεμίους μᾶλλον, ὁ δὲ δῆμος, ἅτε εὖ εἰδὼς ὅτι οὐδὲν τῶν σφῶν ἐμπρήσουσιν οὐδὲ τεμοῦσιν, ἀδεῶς ζῇ καὶ οὐχ ὑπερχόμενος αὐτούς.

      [15] πρὸς δὲ τούτοις καὶ ἑτέρου δέους ἀπηλλαγμένοι ἂν ἦσαν, εἰ νῆσον ᾤκουν, μηδέποτε προδοθῆναι τὴν πόλιν ὑπ' ὀλίγων μηδὲ πύλας ἀνοιχθῆναι μηδὲ πολεμίους ἐπεισπεσεῖν· πῶς γὰρ νῆσον οἰκούντων ταῦτ' ἂν ἐγίγνετο; μηδ' αὖ στασιάσαι τῷ δήμῳ μηδέν, εἰ νῆσον ᾤκουν· νῦν μὲν γὰρ εἰ στασιάσαιεν, ἐλπίδα ἂν ἔχοντες ἐν τοῖς πολεμίοις στασιάσειαν ὡς κατὰ γῆν ἐπαξόμενοι· εἰ δὲ νῆσον ᾤκουν, καὶ ταῦτα ἂν ἀδεῶς ὑπῆρχεν αὐτοῖς.

      [16] ἐπειδὴ οὖν ἐξ ἀρχῆς οὐκ ἔτυχον οἰκήσαντες νῆσον, νῦν τάδε ποιοῦσι· τὴν μὲν οὐσίαν ταῖς νήσοις παρατίθενται πιστεύοντες τῇ ἀρχῇ τῇ κατὰ θάλατταν, τὴν δὲ Ἀττικὴν γῆν περιορῶσι τεμνομένην γιγνώσκοντες ὅτι εἰ αὐτὴν ἐλεήσουσιν ἑτέρων ἀγαθῶν μειζόνων στερήσονται.


      [17] Ἔτι δὲ συμμαχίας καὶ τοὺς ὅρκους ταῖς μὲν ὀλιγαρχουμέναις πόλεσιν ἀνάγκη ἐμπεδοῦν· ἢν δὲ μὴ ἐμμένωσι ταῖς συνθήκαις, ἢ ὑφ' ὅτου ἀδικεῖ† ὀνόματα ἀπὸ τῶν ὀλίγων οἳ συνέθεντο. ἅσσα δ' ἂν ὁ δῆμος σύνθηται, ἔξεστιν αὐτῷ, ἑνὶ ἀνατιθέντι τὴν αἰτίαν τῷ λέγοντι καὶ τῷ ἐπιψηφίσαντι ἀρνεῖσθαι τοῖς ἄλλοις ὅτι οὐ παρῆν οὐδὲ ἀρέσκει
ἐμοί γε, συγκείμενα πυνθάνονται ἐν πλήρει τῷ δήμῳ· καὶ εἰ μὴ δόξαι εἶναι ταῦτα, προφάσεις μυρίας ἐξηύρηκε τοῦ μὴ ποιεῖν ὅσα ἂν μὴ βούλωνται. καὶ ἂν μέν τι κακὸν ἀναβαίνῃ ἀπὸ ὧν ὁ δῆμος ἐβούλευσεν, αἰτιᾶται ὁ δῆμος ὡς ὀλίγοι ἄνθρωποι αὐτῷ ἀντιπράττοντες διέφθειραν· ἐὰν δέ τι ἀγαθόν, σφίσιν αὐτοῖς τὴν αἰτίαν ἀνατιθέασι.

      [18] κωμῳδεῖν δ' αὖ καὶ κακῶς λέγειν τὸν μὲν δῆμον οὐκ ἐῶσιν, ἵνα μὴ αὐτοὶ ἀκούωσι κακῶς· ἰδίᾳ δὲ κελεύουσιν, εἴ τίς τινα βούλεται, εὖ εἰδότες ὅτι οὐχὶ τοῦ δήμου ἐστὶν οὐδὲ τοῦ πλήθους ὁ κωμῳδούμενος ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολύ, ἀλλ' ἢ πλούσιος ἢ γενναῖος ἢ δυνάμενος, ὀλίγοι δέ τινες τῶν πενήτων καὶ τῶν δημοτικῶν κωμῳδοῦνται καὶ οὐδ' οὗτοι ἐὰν μὴ διὰ πολυπραγμοσύνην καὶ διὰ τὸ ζητεῖν πλέον τι ἔχειν τοῦ δήμου· ὥστε οὐδὲ τοὺς τοιούτους ἄχθονται κωμῳδουμένους.

      [19] φημὶ οὖν ἔγωγε τὸν δῆμον τὸν Ἀθήνησι γιγνώσκειν οἵτινες χρηστοί εἰσι τῶν πολιτῶν καὶ οἵτινες πονηροί, γιγνώσκοντες δὲ τοὺς μὲν σφίσιν αὐτοῖς ἐπιτηδείους καὶ συμφόρους φιλοῦσι, κἂν πονηροὶ ὦσι, τοὺς δὲ χρηστοὺς μισοῦσι μᾶλλον· οὐ γὰρ νομίζουσι τὴν ἀρετὴν αὐτοῖς πρὸς τῷ σφετέρῳ ἀγαθῷ πεφυκέναι, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τῷ κακῷ· καὶ τοὐναντίον γε τούτου ἔνιοι, ὄντες ὡς ἀληθῶς τοῦ δήμου, τὴν φύσιν οὐ δημοτικοί εἰσι.

      [20] δημοκρατίαν δ' ἐγὼ μὲν αὐτῷ τῷ δήμῳ συγγιγνώσκω· αὑτὸν μὲν γὰρ εὖ ποιεῖν παντὶ συγγνώμη ἐστίν· ὅστις δὲ μὴ ὢν τοῦ δήμου εἵλετο ἐν δημοκρατουμένῃ πόλει οἰκεῖν μᾶλλον ἢ ἐν ὀλιγαρχουμένῃ, ἀδικεῖν παρεσκευάσατο καὶ ἔγνω ὅτι μᾶλλον οἷόν τε διαλαθεῖν κακῷ ὄντι ἐν δημοκρατουμένῃ πόλει μᾶλλον ἢ ἐν ὀλιγαρχουμένῃ·

 

[III 1] καὶ περὶ τῆς Ἀθηναίων πολιτείας τὸν μὲν τρόπον οὐκ ἐπαινῶ· ἐπειδήπερ δ' ἔδοξεν αὐτοῖς δημοκρατεῖσθαι, εὖ μοι δοκοῦσι διασῴζεσθαι τὴν δημοκρατίαν τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ χρώμενοι ᾧ ἐγὼ ἐπέδειξα. 
Ἔτι δὲ καὶ τάδε τινὰς ὁρῶ μεμφομένους Ἀθηναίους ὅτι ἐνίοτε οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτόθι χρηματίσαι τῇ βουλῇ οὐδὲ τῷ δήμῳ ἐνιαυτὸν καθημένῳ ἀνθρώπῳ· καὶ τοῦτο Ἀθήνησι γίγνεται οὐδὲν δι' ἄλλο ἢ διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν πραγμάτων οὐχ οἷοί τε πάντας ἀποπέμπειν εἰσὶ χρηματίσαντες.

      [2] πῶς γὰρ ἂν καὶ οἷοί τε εἶεν, οὕστινας πρῶτον μὲν δεῖ ἑορτάσαι ἑορτὰς ὅσας οὐδεμία τῶν Ἑλληνίδων πόλεων (ἐν δὲ ταύταις ἧττόν τινα δυνατόν ἐστι διαπράττεσθαι τῶν τῆς πόλεως), ἔπειτα δὲ δίκας καὶ γραφὰς καὶ εὐθύνας ἐκδικάζειν ὅσας οὐδ' οἱ σύμπαντες ἄνθρωποι ἐκδικάζουσι, τὴν δὲ βουλὴν βουλεύεσθαι πολλὰ μὲν περὶ τοῦ πολέμου, πολλὰ δὲ περὶ πόρου χρημάτων, πολλὰ δὲ περὶ νόμων θέσεως, πολλὰ δὲ περὶ τῶν κατὰ πόλιν ἀεὶ γιγνομένων, πολλὰ δὲ καὶ τοῖς συμμάχοις, καὶ φόρον δέξασθαι καὶ νεωρίων ἐπιμεληθῆναι καὶ ἱερῶν. ἆρα δή τι θαυμαστόν ἐστιν εἰ τοσούτων ὑπαρχόντων πραγμάτων μὴ οἷοί τ' εἰσὶ πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις χρηματίσαι; λέγουσι δέ τινες·

      [3] ἤν τις ἀργύριον ἔχων προσίῃ πρὸς βουλὴν ἢ δῆμον, χρηματιεῖται. ἐγὼ δὲ τούτοις ὁμολογήσαιμ' ἂν ἀπὸ χρημάτων πολλὰ διαπράττεσθαι Ἀθήνησι καὶ ἔτι ἂν πλείω διαπράττεσθαι, εἰ πλείους ἔ<τι> ἐδίδοσαν ἀργύριον· τοῦτο μέντοι εὖ οἶδα διότι πᾶσι διαπρᾶξαι ἡ πόλις τῶν δεομένων οὐχ ἱκανή, οὐδ' εἰ ὁποσονοῦν χρυσίον καὶ ἀργύριον διδοίη τις αὐτοῖς.

      [4] δεῖ δὲ καὶ τάδε διαδικάζειν, εἴ τις τὴν ναῦν μὴ ἐπισκευάζει ἢ κατοικοδομεῖ τι δημόσιον· πρὸς δὲ τούτοις χορηγοῖς διαδικάσαι εἰς Διονύσια καὶ Θαργήλια καὶ Παναθήναια καὶ Προμήθ[ε]ια καὶ Ἡφαίστια ὅσα ἔτη· καὶ τριήραρχοι καθίστανται τετρακόσιοι ἑκάστου ἐνιαυτοῦ, καὶ τούτων τοῖς βουλομένοις διαδικάσαι ὅσα ἔτη· πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ἀρχὰς δοκιμάσαι καὶ διαδικάσαι καὶ ὀρφανοὺς δοκιμάσαι καὶ φύλακας δεσμωτῶν καταστῆσαι. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ὅσα ἔτη.

      [5] διὰ χρόνου δ<ὲ> δικάσαι δεῖ <παρα>στρατ<ηγ>ίας καὶ ἐάν τι ἄλλο ἐξαπιναῖον ἀδίκημα γίγνηται, ἐάν τε ὑβρίζωσί τινες ἄηθες ὕβρισμα ἐάν τε ἀσεβήσωσι. πολλὰ ἔτι πάνυ παραλείπω· τὸ δὲ μέγιστον εἴρηται πλὴν αἱ τάξεις τοῦ φόρου· τοῦτο δὲ γίγνεται ὡς τὰ πολλὰ δι' ἔτους πέμπτου.

      [6] φέρε δὴ τοίνυν, ταῦτα οὐκ οἴεσθαι <χρὴ> χρῆναι διαδικάζειν ἅπαντα; εἰπάτω γάρ τις ὅ τι οὐ χρῆν αὐτόθι διαδικάζεσθαι. εἰ δ' αὖ ὁμολογεῖ<ν> δεῖ[ν] ἅπαντα χρῆναι διαδικάζειν, ἀνάγκη δι' ἐνιαυτοῦ· ὡς οὐδὲ νῦν δι' ἐνιαυτοῦ δικάζοντες ὑπάρχουσιν ὥστε παύειν τοὺς ἀδικοῦντας ὑπὸ τοῦ πλήθους τῶν ἀνθρώπων.

      [7] φέρε δή, ἀλλὰ φήσει τις χρῆναι δικάζειν μέν, ἐλάττους δὲ δικάζειν. ἀνάγκῃ τοίνυν, ἐὰν μὴ ὀλίγα ποιῶνται δικαστήρια, ὀλίγοι ἐν ἑκάστῳ ἔσονται τῷ δικαστηρίῳ· ὥστε καὶ διασκευάσασθαι ῥᾴδιον ἔσται πρὸς ὀλίγους δικαστὰς καὶ συνδ<ε>κάσαι πολὺ ἧττον <δὲ> δικαίως δικάζειν.

      [8] πρὸς δὲ τούτοις οἴεσθαι χρὴ καὶ ἑορτὰς ἄγειν χρῆναι Ἀθηναίους ἐν αἷς οὐχ οἷόν τε δικάζειν· καὶ ἄγουσι μὲν ἑορτὰς διπλασίους ἢ οἱ ἄλλοι· ἀλλ' ἐγὼ μὲν τίθημι ἴσας τῇ ὀλιγίστας ἀγούσῃ πόλει. τούτων τοίνυν τοιούτων ὄντων οὔ φημι οἷόν τ' εἶναι ἄλλως ἔχειν τὰ πράγματα Ἀθήνησιν ἢ ὥσπερ νῦν ἔχει, πλὴν <ἢ> κατὰ μικρόν τι οἷόν τε τὸ μὲν ἀφελεῖν τὸ δὲ προσθεῖναι· πολὺ δ' οὐχ οἷόν τε μετακινεῖν, ὥστε μὴ οὐχὶ τῆς δημοκρατίας ἀφαιρεῖν τι.

      [9] ὥστε μὲν γὰρ βέλτιον ἔχειν τὴν πολιτείαν, οἷόν τε πολλὰ ἐξευρεῖν, ὥστε μέντοι ὑπάρχειν [μὲν] δημοκρατίαν εἶναι, ἀρκούντως [δὲ] τοῦτο ἐξευρεῖν ὅπως βέλτιον πολιτεύσονται, οὐ ῥᾴδιον, πλὴν ὅπερ ἄρτι εἶπον κατὰ μικρόν τι προσθέντα ἢ ἀφελόντα.

      [10] Δοκοῦσι δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι καὶ τοῦτό μοι οὐκ ὀρθῶς βουλεύεσθαι ὅτι τοὺς χείρους αἱροῦνται ἐν ταῖς πόλεσι ταῖς στασιαζούσαις. οἳ δὲ τοῦτο γνώμῃ ποιοῦσιν· εἰ μὲν γὰρ ᾑροῦντο τοὺς βελτίους, ᾑροῦντ' ἂν οὐχὶ τοὺς ταὐτὰ γιγνώσκοντας σφίσιν αὐτοῖς· ἐν οὐδεμιᾷ γὰρ πόλει τὸ βέλτιστον εὔνουν ἐστὶ τῷ δήμῳ, ἀλλὰ τὸ κάκιστον ἐν ἑκάστῃ ἐστὶ πόλει εὔνουν τῷ δήμῳ· οἱ γὰρ ὁμοῖοι τοῖς ὁμοίοις εὔνοοί εἰσι· διὰ ταῦτα οὖν Ἀθηναῖοι τὰ σφίσιν αὐτοῖς προσήκοντα αἱροῦνται.

      [11] ὁποσάκις δ' ἐπεχείρησαν αἱρεῖσθαι τοὺς βελτίστους, οὐ συνήνεγκεν αὐτοῖς· ἀλλ' ἐντὸς ὀλίγου χρόνου ὁ δῆμος ἐδούλευσεν ὁ [μ]ἐν Βοιωτοῖς· τοῦτο δὲ ὅτε Μιλησίων εἵλοντο τοὺς βελτίστους, ἐντὸς ὀλίγου χρόνου ἀποστάντες τὸν δῆμον κατέκοψαν· τοῦτο δὲ ὅτε εἵλοντο Λακεδαιμονίους ἀντὶ Μεσσηνίων, ἐντὸς ὀλίγου χρόνου Λακεδαιμόνιοι καταστρεψάμενοι Μεσσηνίους ἐπολέμουν Ἀθηναίοις.

      [12] Ὑπολάβοι δέ τις ἂν ὡς οὐδεὶς ἄρα ἀδίκως ἠτίμωται Ἀθήνησιν. ἐγὼ δέ φημί τινας εἶναι οἳ ἀδίκως ἠτίμωνται, ὀλίγοι μέντοι τινές. ἀλλ' οὐκ ὀλίγων δεῖ τῶν ἐπιθησομένων τῇ δημοκρατίᾳ τῇ Ἀθήνησιν, ἐπεί τοι καὶ οὕτως ἔχει οὐδὲν ἐνθυμεῖσθαι ἀνθρώπους οἵτινες δικαίως <ἠ>τίμωνται, ἀλλ' εἴ τινες ἀδίκως. [13] πῶς ἂν οὖν ἀδίκως οἴοιτό τις ἂν τοὺς πολλοὺς ἠτιμῶσθαι Ἀθήνησιν, ὅπου ὁ δῆμός ἐστιν ὁ ἄρχων τὰς ἀρχάς, ἐκ δὲ τοῦ μὴ δικαίως ἄρχειν μηδὲ λέγειν τὰ δίκαια <μηδὲ τὰ δίκαια> πράττειν, ἐκ τοιούτων ἄτιμοί εἰσιν Ἀθήνησι. ταῦτα χρὴ λογιζόμενον μὴ νομίζειν εἶναί τι δεινὸν ἀπὸ τῶν ἀτίμων Ἀθήνησιν.


NOTES TO THE "CONSTITUTION OF THE ATHENIANS"

 

These notes were made in haste in spring 2001, for an undergraduate course at the University of Dallas.  For most students it was their first "advanced" Greek course.  I glossed anything that I sensed might get them "stuck", and some historical matters; and to save time (for there were many other readings), I also glossed some rare but simple words, about which students wouldn't learn much by looking them up.

 

            Nothing certain is known about the author.  He seems an embittered aristocrat who detests yet also, despite himself, admires the democracy at Athens, and wants to tell his friends in other cities just how it "works".   This simultaneity of hatred and admiration verges, at times, on the comical; yet this very passion--rather like that of the Corinthian speaker in Thucydides I, 120-124--seems to sharpen the author's insights; for in spite of its clumsiness, his analysis is often penetrating.  

            Unlike most classical prose authors, he does not play any stylistic games at all (notice e.g. how crudely he marks every new point with the same word ἔπειτα... ἔπειτα... ἔπειτα..., "Next--... Next--... Next--..."); one feels that his sole aim is maximum clarity.  But like every late-5th-century Greek writer, he is a terrible lover of logical antithesis.  So now and then (e.g. I.3, II.15-17, III.9) he ties himself in knots, from trying too hard to begin each sentence with the phrase that represents its main idea.  He likes to put that first -- even if this twists the grammar inside out -- so that particles can contrast it with 'main ideas' of adjacent clauses. 

            But mostly he is abnormally clear, and I think that all but those few knottiest places you should be able to figure out unaided.  Your commonest problems will be, as always: (a) irregular verb forms; (b) un-English word order; (c) ellipse (or to be more exact, "brachylogy": when a clause lacks a word that we "supply in thought" because it appeared elsewhere in the sentence--this happens again and again); (d) relative clauses (e.g. because a pronoun's antecedent comes later, or is not expressed) and (d) "idioms" with particular words.  But apart from the last, each problem would soon vanish, if you paid it close attention for just a few pages. 

 

            (I.1) ταῦτα ἔδοξεν... ἃ δοκοῦσιν· here δοκέω is used in two different senses: first its more pregnant sense, "seem best" ("seem right", "seem fitting"), then its weaker sense of "seem" (so too, δοκεῖ in I.2) .  is internal accus. (GGH 42: 43) with ἁμαρτάνειν.

            (I.2) πρῶτον μὲν: ("Firstly--") anticipates 3 ἔπειτα (= "secondly", i.e. "my next point is--"), 4 ἔπειτα δὲ..., and so on.  κυβερνῆται... κελεσταὶ... πεντηκόνταρχοι... πρωρᾶται... ναυπηγοί· helmsmen, boatswains (i.e. those who call the beat for the rowers), junior officers, look-outs (lit. 'men in the bow' -- πρῷρα cognate with Engl. "prow"), shipwrights. (So he lists everyone connected with a trireme, except the mere rowers.  Those, too, were at first mostly Athenian, but as the navy expanded towards the end of the Peloponnesian War, the rowers became largely metics and other foreigners, serving for pay.  This is, conceivably, one clue to the date of this text.)   

            (I.3) ἔπειτα (see on I.2).  In this sentence take care to ask yourself exactly what is the "antecedent" (so-called -- for it actually comes later) of ὁπόσαι, and what οὖσαι modifies.  χρησταὶ οὖσαι· lit. "when they are honest", i.e. "when they are in the hands of honest people" (i.e. the aristocrats, the χρηστοί).  τούτων...τῶν ἀρχῶν· The gen. depends on μετεῖναι ('have a share of').  οὐδὲν is here adverbial = "not at all".  σφισι χρῆναι μετεῖναι· impersonal const.; lit. "that there ought to be a share for them", i.e. in better English, "that they ought to share".  ὠφελεῖται (middle) "get advantage from" "benefit from".

            (I.4) is object of (really internal acc. with) θαυμάζουσιν ("what they marvel at").  πλέον νέμουσι· "give more power to"; the subject is "they" = the Athenians. φανοῦνται· not "they seem" but "they are obviously ---ing" (this is a "supplementary participle". For other examples of that see GGH 31. The same const. is in I.11 φανεῖεν ἂν ποιῦντες). καθιστᾶσι has here its most abstract meaning, "cause to be" (GGH 25a: 27).

            (I.5) ἔνι = ἔνεστι.  ἀκρίβεια: normally, "accuracy"; here "punctiliousness", "strictness".  εἰς "with regard to".  ἐνίοις· dat. of interest (& probably it goes only with ἀμαθία).

            (I.6) ἐχρῆν· on tense see GMT 417. βουλεύειν· "to deliberate" = serve on the βουλή.   καὶ ἐν τούτῳ... καὶ τοὺς πονηροὺς·: each kaÛ adverbial = "even".  ἔλεγον... ἐβουλεύοντο· here these verbs have their technical meanings: "speak" = speak in the Assembly and "deliberate" = serve on the βουλή.  νῦν δὲ· "but as it is," "but as things are" (in Athens).

            (I.7)  γνοίη·  remember that γιγνώσκω means not only "come to know" or "recognize" but also "form a judgement", and so (as here) "resolve".  (So the aorist of this verb is used e.g. if the Assembly "has resolved" or "passed a resolution"; or if a court has "passed judgement".)  τοιοῦτος ἄνθρωπος· "a man like that", i.e. a member of the mob.

            (I.8) εἴη...ἂν...σῴζοιτο· potential optatives.  (Notice how self-contradictory, how un-Socratic this fellow's logic is in this and the next paragraph.  He oddly admits that those who are "juster", "better", "more respectable" etc. rule in their own interest!)

            (I.9) ὄψει fut., 2nd pers. sing.; and note that since it is a verb of perception, the indirect speech which it governs has a participle (tiy¡ntaw) instead of an infinitive.  αυτοῖς· "for themselves" (i.e. for their own advantage: dative of advantage).  ἔπειτα· again, "secondly--". 

            (I.10) τῶν μετοίκων· "metics", "resident aliens".  In many cities they had no rights at all; at Athens, though they could not vote, they had legal rights, and sometimes even held office.  (On their importance, see the note below on I.12.)  ὑπεκστήσεται· take the time to figure out exactly what form of what verb this is.  (And note that it's a rare instance of a middle being instransitive.)   οὗ δ' ἕνεκέν ἐστι τοῦτο· indirect question.  ἐπικχώριον as a noun usually means "custom", "local practice"; here it seems to mean "the (local) reason".   εἰ νόμος ἦν· "if it were law", i.e. "if it were lawful".  πολλάκις ἂν οἰηψεὶς εἶναι τὸν Ἀθηναῖον δοῦλον ἐπάταξεν ἄν· Try hard to figure out this clause.  The subject is "one" or "someone" understood ("one would often have struck" etc.); agreeing with that is οἰηθεὶς (from οἴομαι), which governs the indirect speech εῖναι τὸν Ἀθηαῖον δοῦλον (where τὸν Ἀθ. is subject and δοῦλον predicate nom.); and the object is "him" understood.  ἐσθῆτά· accus. respect.; for a verb here, you supply ἐστί. 

            (I.11)  τρυφάω (intrans.) "be soft" or wanton.  μεγαλοπρεπῶς διαιτᾶσθαι· "live like great men".  καὶ τοῦτο γνώμη φανεῖεν ἂν ποιοῦντες· the  καί is adverbial, "this too".  γνώμῃ here = "with reason", "with good sense".  Be sure to figure out what form φανεῖεν is.  The opt. is potential, but you can translate it just as if it were indicative. The verb has here the same meaning and const. that it had above in I.4 (where see the note).   ἀπὸ χρημάτων etc.  This sentence seems corrupt and is hard.  The prep. phrase could mean either (a) "for money" (for a wage) or (b) "for financial reasons" (then douleæein means "to work (as a slave)"); and the dative of τοῖς ἀνδραπόδοις could be governed either by ἀνάνκη ("necessary for the slaves") or by δουλεύειν ("to be a slave to the slaves").  ἵνα λαμβάνωμεν <ὧν> πράττῃ τὰς ἀποφοράς· this clause seems corrupt (as if missing something). ἵνα λαμβάνωμεν... ἀποφοράς by itself means "so that we may get income": ἀποφορά = the income which a man got from renting his slaves and taking some of their earnings. <ὧν> (if that conjecture is right) = (τούτων) , and for subject of πράττῃ we supply in thought "a slave". ἀφιέναι inf. depends (like δουλεύειν) on ἀνάγκη ("and necessary to" etc.).  ἐδεδόκει· "would be afraid": the plupf. of δεέδω (whose parts you should know) is always equivalent to imperf.; and this is like the apodosis of a present unreal condition.  κινδυνεύσει: (here) "he is likely to" + infinitive.  But later in the sentence, κινδυνεύειν has its normal meaning of "be in danger", "run a risk" etc.  (That sort of clumsiness--the same word used twice, in different senses--is typical of this writer!)

            (I.12) δεῖται ἡ πόλις μετοίκων, etc.-- Athens needs its metics (a) for industry and (b) for the fleet.  Of (a) one example is the old man in whose house Plato's Republic is set: Kephalos, a rich manufacturer originally from Syracuse who had a shield factory in the Peiraeus.  It is his two sons that converse with Socrates there; a third son of his was the great orator Lysias, who ghost-wrote speeches for Athenians to deliver in court.  As for the fleet, by the end of the Peloponnesian war metics constituted over half the rowers.  (We know this from Thuc. 7.63.3 and from extant inscriptions listing ships' crews; e.g. = IG II/III2 1951.  That is dated to 412 and lists about 30 citizen oarsmen and "about 40 of metics and foreigners".)

            (I.13) οὐ δυνατὸς ταῦτά ἐστιν ἐπιτηδεύειν· Don't be tricked by the word order; go by the endings.  The subject is "it", meaning ὁ δῆμος.  χορηγία, γυμνασιαρχία, τριηραρχία, the offices of choregos (wealthy man required to pay for the training and staging of a play or choral work), gymnasiarch (athletic instructor) and trierarch (wealthy man required to outfit and captain a trireme).  A choregia or a trierarchy was terribly expensive for the holder; such offices were often discharged with gusto, but were a sort of tax on the rich.  χορηγέω lead the chorus, i.e. perform the office of choregos; χορηγέομαι: (passive) "be led", i.e. serve in the chorus.  (Similarly, the following pairs of verbs; each makes the same sort of antithesis.)  πλέων· verb, not pronoun.  ἵνα... ἐχῃ· for object supply χρήματα.  οὐ τοῦ δικαίοι αὐτοῖς μέλει· the verb is impersonal, and takes the dative ("it is a concern for them", i.e. in good Engl. "they are interested") and the genitive of the thing you are concerned with (i.e. interested in).

            (I.14) ὡς δοκοῦσι is odd but means perhaps "as they like" (δοκέω in its active sense).  The sentence as a whole seems clumsy, as if the writer changed the construction midway through: "Concerning the allies,--the fact that they [i.e. the Athenian demos], when they sail out, inform against and hate the respectable people [i.e. in the allied cities], because they know [etc.] -- because of this, then (διὰ ταῦτα οὖν), they disenfranchise the respectable elements" etc. 

            A "sycophant" was anyone who informed against (ἐσυκοφάντησε) a rich person, in order to get some of his property if he were tried and convicted.  Apparently, an Athenian could thus inform against citizens of other cities (cf. Aristophanes, Birds, 1422), and the cases had then to be tried at Athens.  Our author here asserts that this was done not only for financial gain but also for the sake of strengthening the common citizenry's grip on the empire!  (That seems a trifle paranoid!  Commentators here doubt that this abuse was widespread, because no Athenian critic in Thuc. ever mentions it, though they do mention many others.) 

            The word "allies", of course, is a euphemism for the subject-cities of the empire.

            (I.15) χρήματα εἰσφέρειν· "to pay tribute money", i.e. the tax levied by Athens on her subject cities (originally contributions to the Delian League). ἕνα ἕκαστον· individual Ath. citizens as distinct from the city as a whole.  With ἐκείνους δὲ ὅσον ζῆν sc. ἔχειν from the prior clause: "...and that they [ἐκείνους --i.e. the allies] should have only enough to live on" etc.

            (I.16) τοὺς συμμάχους ἀναγκάζουσι πλεῖν ἐπὶ δίκας Ἀθήναζε.   Legal disputes between Athenians and foreigners all had to be tried at Athens; and that the "allies" did sometimes (though not always) detest this we know from Thucydides and Aristophanes.  ἔνι = ἔνεστι.  Subject of λαμβάνειν is "they" (the Athenians); object τὸν μισθὸν; this clause is indirect speech depending on ἀντιλογίζονται.

            There are many Athenian reasons why it is best to try all these cases at Athens: πρῶτον μὲν ("firstly")..., εἶτ(α) ("secondly")..., (I.17) πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ("and in addition")..., πρῶτον μὲν ("firstly")...  (I.18) ἔπειτα ("then too") -- and so on.

            εἰ δὲ οἴκοι εἶχον ἕκαστοι τὰς δίκας· "But if each (city) held trials at home" (οἴκοι).   ἅτε ἀχθόμενοι Ἀθηναίοις· "inasmuch as they [i.e. the cities] hate Athens".  ἅτε like ὡς is used to signal that a participle gives the motives of the subject of the main verb. Here it is translatable, but often, like ὡς, it is not. Cf. below I.20, II.14.)  οἵτινες· antecedent τούτους.  σφῶν αὐτῶν "of themselves", i.e. "of their own citizens", partitive gen. with τούτους.

            (I.17) ἡ ἑκατοστὴ τῇ πόλει πλείων ἡ ἐν Πειραιεῖ· "the one per-cent tax in the Peiraeus (is) more for the city", i.e. is a greater gain for the city.  Nothing now is known about this tax (apparently it is mentioned only here).

            (I.18) τῳ = τινί (possessive dative).  συνοικία: lit "cohabitation": i.e. a room to rent. ἄμεινον πράττει: "he fares better", i.e. makes more money.  ζευγός... ἢ ἀνδράποδον μισθοφοροῦν· "a team (of horses) or a slave to rent".   νῦν δ'· "but as it is" ("but as things stand").

            γιγνώσκων ὅτι δεῖ etc.  Apparently, the verb governed by δεῖ is not δοῦναι or λαβεῖν; rather, it is (εἶναι) which we supply in thought ("it is necessary that ... be...).  The subject of this understood "εἶναι" is the accus.-&-infin. construction δίκην δοῦναι καὶ λαβεῖν, which thus is a kind of noun meaning (lit.) "giving and receiving justice" (= "suffering or inflicting punishment"), and its predicate is (εἶναι) οὐκ ἐν ἄλλοις τισὶν ἀλλ' ἐν τῷ δήμῳ. For εἶναι ἐν (+ dative) is a common idiom meaning "to be in the hands of", "to be in the power of". 

            του = τινός.  ἐπιλαμβάνεσθαι τῆς χειρός· "to take him by the hand", i.e. in supplication. In this place J. M. Moore quotes very aptly from Aristophanes, Wasps 550 ff.: "Is anyone more to be envied and congratulated than a juror today?... As soon as I creep out of bed, I find great tall men waiting for me at the entrance.  As soon as I approach, a man thrusts into my hand his own delicate fingers which have dipped into the public purse.  They beg and they bow, they whine and they plead, 'Pity me, good sir, if ever you made something on the side when in office or running the mess on foreign expeditions'  He wouldn't have known me from Adam if it hadn't been for his previous acquittal!"

            (1.19) λελήθοσι μανθάνοντες· don't be helpless with this; figure out exactly what form of what verb is λελήθασι, and see "suppl. participle" in Smyth, or GGH 31.  οἱ ἀκόλουθοι· i.e. their servants (cf. τὸν οἰκέτην later in the sentence).  πλέοντα· participle, not pronoun.

            (I.20) οἱ δ' ἐντεῦθεν ἐπὶ τριήρεσι κατέστησαν, i.e. some "κατέστησαν" [figure out what form that is and what it means] from merchant ships to triremes.  οἷοί τε: able to.  Perhaps editors are wrong to excise ὡς, and instead τάχιστα should be added (as having dropped out); then: οἱ δὲ πολλοὶ δὲ ελαύνειν εὐθὺς οἷοί τε ὡς τάχιστα εἰσβάντες εἰς ναῦς·  "they are able to sail as soon as they" etc.  On ἅτε see on I.16. 

 

            (II.1)  This passage till II.7 seems a really astute analysis of how the Athenian empire works.  As you read it, think constantly of the British empire (almost everything said here applies to that also).  Our author here seems lost in admiration, despite himself!  τὸ δὲ ὁπλιτικὸν.. οὕτω καθέστηκεν, καὶ...ηγοῦνται...: lit. "The foot soldiery... has been established thus, and they think..." etc.; but this really means: "and the foot soldiery is based on the following principle: they think that" etc. (so kaÛ is used rather oddly).  ὀλείζους· "fewer" (compar. of ὀλίγους).  φέρουσι τὸν φόρον· "pay the tribute money"

            (II.2) πρὸς δὲ καὶ· "And besides" or "In addition" (πρός here an adv., not a prep.).  κατἀ τύχην τι αὐτοῖς τοιοῦτον καθέστηκε· figure out how to translate this both "literally" and in good English.  The subject is τι... τοιῦτον ("some such thing as this", i.e. "the following factor"); on καθέστηκε see GGH 25a p. 25a [new version p. 27], 2.b.  οἱ κατὰ γῆν ἀρχόμενοι· i.e. the people of Athens' subject cities on the mainland--e.g. in Boeotia--as distinct from (later in the sentence) those whom she rules by sea.  οἷόν τ' ἐστὶν· impersonal, equivalent to ἔξεστι; lit. "it is possible (for them) to", i.e. in effect ("they) are able to" (+ infin.).   συνοικίζω here means simply "unite".  συνάρασθαι from συναίρω.  ἡ θάλαττα ἐν τῷ μέσῳ· for a verb supply ἐστί.  εἰ δ' οἷόν τε· supply ἦν: "if it were possible for them" etc.  εὶς ταυτὸ = εἰς τὸ αὐτό· "for the same purpose". 

            (II.3) εἰσάγεσθαί τι ἢ ἐξάγεσθαι· "to import or export something". 

            (II.4) ἅπερ τοῖς τῆς γῆς· with τοῖς supply ἄρχουσι and for a verb supply oοἷόν τ' ἐστὶ ποιεῖν.  ἐνίοτε --"sometimes"--here means in effect "only sometimes" "not always". ἐὰν δὲ προσίωσιν· "and if the enemy approaches" (i.e. if the invaded people counterattack).

            (II.5) ἀπὸ τῆς σφετέρας· sc. χώρας (or γῆς.  Those two nouns are often omitted by ellipse--more than any other nouns in Greek). ὁπόσον· accus. of extent of space. ἀπελψεῖν πολλῶν ἡμερῶν ὁδόν· "to make a journey of many days": ὁδὸν internal accus. (see Smyth 1567).  βραδεῖαί... αἱ πορεῖαι· sc. εἰσί.  πεζῇ ἰόντα· "for someone going by foot" (the subject of an infin. governed by ἔξεστι or οἷόν τε ἐστί, "it is possible", can be either in the dative, as several times above, or in the accus., as here). διὰ φιλίας· again, sc. χώρας (φιλίας here is not the noun but the fem. of the adj., "friendly").   οὗ· (conj.) "where" or "wherever". ταύτῃ τῆς γῆς· at that place".  ἥττους·  don't be helpless with this form, but look it up (e.g. in GGH 14; -ους = -ονος or -ονος).

            (II.7) εὐωχίαι· here "luxuries". ἄλλῃ· "elsewhere", "in other places".

            (II.8) ἐκ τῆς... ἐκ τῆς...· (now) from this one, (now) from that one. 

            (II.9) οἰκεῖν· here not (intrans.) "live" but (trans.) "administer". ἡ πόλις· singular -- but the verb is plural.  So it cannot be subject; so make it predicative. εὐωχέομαι· to be entertained at a feast.

            (II.10) γυμνασία· the gymnasia (e.g. the Academy, the Lyceum, Cynosarges) were each in a grove by a stream; each had a track, a gym, athletic equipment etc.; they were like today's athletic "clubs", but open to the public.  λουτρά· either public baths, or perhaps (since public baths are not elsewhere attested so early) merely washing places.  ἀποδυτήρια· changing rooms.   παλαίστρα· wrestling school.  λουτρών -ῶνος· bathhouse. 

            (II.11) μόνοι· i.e. "they alone" the common people of Athens. διαθήσεται· "dispose of", i.e. sell.  παρὰ μὲν τοῦ..., παρὰ δὲ τοῦ... (etc.) "from one (place)...from another (place)... etc.  The nouns are all subjects of εἰσί (supplied from the preceding clause): σίδηρος iron, χαλκός copper, λίνον flax, κηρός wax.

            (II.12) ἄλλοσε ἄγειν ("to carry [goods] elsewhere") is in effect a noun meaning "export", object of οὐκ ἐάσουσιν (whose subject is again "they" = the Athenians). οἵτινες· the antecedent of this is not expressed -- figure it out. οὐδὲν ποιῶν· "producing nothing".

            (II.14) ὑπέρχονται· here trans. "make up to", "curry favor with" (lit. "creep under").

            (II.15)  ἀπαλλάγω in the passive means "be free of" (here, of fear).  The following infinitives--μηδέποτε προδοθῆναι... μηδὲ... ἀνοιχθῆναι μηδὲ... ἐπεισπεσεῖν... μηδ' αὖ στασιάσαι--seem to depend on δέους· "fear of being betrayed" etc.  But this is strange, since normally fear of what may happen is followed by μή + subjunctive or (more rarely) future infinitive (so e.g. all the examples in Smyth 2238.  The aor. infinitives in our passage are being used more like nouns than like verbs--they should have been preceded by τοῦ!)  μηδ' αὖ στασιάσαι τῷ δήμῳ μηδέν· στασιάζω means "be in civil strife against" or "form a faction against" (someone in the dative).  Here for subject we have to supply in thought something like τοὺς ὀλίγους (for he is plainly thinking of them): "nor, again, (would there be any fear) of the few forming a faction against the people" (i.e. fear of an aristocratic coup--a thing that, of course, did happen in 411). Then in the next sentence, again, with στασιάσαιεν supply ὀλίγοι.  ἐλπίδα... ἔχοντες ἐν τοῖς πολεμίοις· "having hope in the enemy"--a hope then explained by ἐπαξόμενοι (middle; for its object, supply in thought τοὺς πολεμίους).  καὶ ταῦτ' ἂν ἀδεῶς εἶχεν αυτοῖς· lit. "there would be no fear for them of this, either" (intransitive use of ¦xv.  This is too hard to explain in a note; if anyone does not understand it, please ask me about it in class.)

            (II.16) ἐξ ἀρχῆς· "from the beginning".  ἔτυχον governs the "supplementary participle" οἰκήσαντες (GGH 31, examples under "Aorist").  παρατιθένται· here "deposit", "store" in the islands.  αὐτὴν· i.e. Attica. ἐλεήσουσιν· ἐλεέω means "pity", "grieve over".  (The attitude described here is, of course, exactly that which first Themistocles, then Pericles, tried to give the people.)

            (II.17) ἐμπεδόω· "confirm", "uphold", "stick fast to".  Similarly ἐμμένω· "abide by".  The text that follows, concerning συνθῆκαι or state agreements, is difficult.  ἢ ὑφ' ὅτου ἀδικεῖ· "or if wrong is done by someone": ἀδικεῖ is used as if it were a passive. ὀνόματα ἀπὸ τῶν ὀλίγων οἳ συνέθεντο· for a main verb, supply εἰσί· "names (are available) from the few who made the agreement" (i.e. when a state agreement is made only by a few people, if later that agreement is broken, everyone remembers the names of those who made it): συντίθημι means "make an agreement" or contract.

            In the next sentence, ἅσσα = ὅσα (the whole clause is object of ἀρνεῖσθαι); αὐτῷ = τῷ δήμῳ; ἀνατιθέντι τὴν αἰτίαν = "by transferring the blame", and ἑνὶ... τῷ λέγοντι καὶ τῷ ἐπιψηφίσαντι = "to one man--the one who made the motion and the one who put it to the vote".  Then with τοῖς ἄλλοις we again supply ἔξεστιν ἀρνεῖσθαι.  This place is hard because of (a) wild word order and (b) ellipse. If I rearrange the words and supply the words missing by ellipse, it becomes easy:  ἅσσα δ' ἂν ὁ δῆμος σύνθηται, ἔξεστιν αὐτῷ ἀρνεῖσθαι, ἀνατιθέντι τὴν αἰτίαν ἑνὶ, τῷ λέγοντι καὶ τῷ ἐπιψηφίσαντι, <καὶ> τοῖς ἄλλοις <ἔξεστι λέγειν> ὅτι "οὐ παρῆν οὐδὲ ἀρέσκει ἐμοίγε, συγκείμενα πυνθάνονται ἐν πλήρει τῷ δήμῳ.  (For ἐμοίγε ἃ other editors print οἱ, εἴ γε μὴ.)  Then in what follows, subject of δόξαι (aor. subjunct. of δοκέω) and of ἐξηύρηκε is ὁ δῆμος; subject of βούλωνται is "they" (= the people -- a sudden clumsy change of subject, typical of this hugely clumsy author!)

            (II.18) Scholars differ about what is meant here by the people "not allowing" comic attacks on them (just think of Aristophanes!).  κελεύουσιν· sc. κωμοδεῖν. ἐστὶν· its subject is  ὁ κωμῳδούμενος = "the one made fun of".  ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολύ· "usually", "for the most part".  πολυπραγμοσύνη· "busybodiness", "meddlesomeness", i.e. because they meddle in everything.

            (II.20) ὅτι μᾶλλον οἷόν τε διαλαθεῖν κακῷ ὄντι· "that it is easier to get away with being bad if you" etc.

 

            (III.1)  On the difficulty of getting anything done in the boulε, the Assembly, or the courts, because of their having far too much to do.  Ἀθηαίους object (not subject) of μεμφομένους, which is indir. speech with ὁρῶ.  τῇ βουλῇ οὐδὲ τῷ δήμῳ· dative with χρηαματίσαι = "transact business with" (that inf. depends on οὐκ ἔστιν, "it is not possible" = οὐκ ἔξεστι).  ἐνιαυτὸν· accus. duration.   καθημένῳ· κάθηιμαι means lit. "sit", but here "sit waiting" or "wait"; the dative is governed by οὐκ ἔστιν. οὐδὲν δι' ἄλλο ἣ· "for no other reason than (the fact that)".  But nothing says "the fact that" -- it seems as if a word like ὅτι has dropped out.  οὐχ οἷοί τε πάντας ἀποπέμπειν εἰσὶ χρηματίσαντες· subject is "they" (the people), and the participle, which should be taken predicatively, is more important logically than the infinitive: "they are not able to send everybody away after having (actually) done their business".

            (III.2) πῶς γὰρ ἂν καὶ οἷοί τε εἶεν· "For how would people be able (to do so), who must, in the first place," etc.: οὕστινας ἑορτάσαι acc. & inf. const. with δεῖ.  ὅσας etc.: as predicate supply again ἑορτὰς ἑορτῶσι.  ἐν ταύταις· i.e. "during these festivals".

            ἔπειτα δὲ δίκας etc.: "and (who must), in the second place,"--etc.: all the infinitives in this long sentence (all the way to where the editors put the question mark) depend on δεῖ at the beginning (which in turn was in a subordinate clause: "How would they be able, when they must" etc.). τὴν δὲ βουλὴν etc. -- notice what a vivid "snapshot" of the government of Athens we get here, in this list of the many duties of the βουλή.

            (III.3) δῆμον· i.e. (here) the Assembly.  ἤν τις ἀργύριον ἔχων προσίη·  this of course is a euphemism for bribery.  χρηματιεῖται: probably middle, "he will get his business done".  πλείους = πλείονες.  διότι = ὅτι.  ἡ πόλις ... τῶν δεομένων οὐχ ἱκανή· sc. ἐστί.  τῶν δεομένων· the gen. depends on ἱκανή which here means "sufficient for", i.e. "capable of dealing with".

            (III.4) εἴ τις τὴν ναῦν μὴ ἐπισκευάζει· this refers to trierachies (see above on I.13).  Later in this paragraph, the figure of 400 trierarchs per year, implying 400 triremes, is an indication of the date of this: Athens had so many triremes only during the Peloponnesian War. 

            (III.5) ὅσα ἔτη· "every year" (lit. "for as many years as there are"), opposed to διὰ χρόνου, "from time to time"; i.e., on the one hand, those matters which are dealt with regularly, on a fixed schedule; on the other, those that are dealt with whenever they happen to come up.   αἱ τάξεις τοῦ φόρου· "assessments of tribute" to be paid by the subject cities (many of which were recorded in stone inscriptions, which were discovered in the last century). 

            (III.6) δι' ἐνιαυτοῦ· "through the (whole) year", i.e. continuously, without pause.

            (III.7) ἀνάγκῃ τοίνυν· "but in that case". διασκευάσασθαι· middle "to prepare (oneself)".  συνδεκάζω· "bribe all together".

            (III.8) ἀλλ' ἐγὼ μὲν τίθημι ἴσας τῇ ὀλιγίστας ἀγούσῃ πόλει· lit. "but I put them [i.e. the festivals] as equal to the city that conducts the fewest (festivals)"; this seems to mean (so clumsily!), "But even suppose, for the sake of argument, that Athens had only as many festivals as those cities which have the fewest."  τούτων τοίνυν τοιούτων ὄντων·  "Well, even if this were so..."  πλὴν ἢ κατὰ μικρόν τι οἷόν τε τὸ μὲν ἀφελεῖν τὸ δὲ προσθεῖναι· "except insofar as (lit. 'unless') it is possible to subtract a little (in one place), and add a little (in another place)"--i.e. only minor changes seem possible.

            (III.9)  μὲν is answered by μέντοι.  βέλτιον ἔχειν· "be better off" (intrans. use of ἔχω, cf. e.g. 2.15; so βέλτιον is adv., not adj.).  οἷόν τε· supply ἐστί, and note that this is the main clause.  This seems an incredibly clumsy sentence.  Half the mischief is caused by the author's fondness for putting his main ideas always first in each clause; lit.: "So that the constitution be better off, it is easy to invent many things; but so that it continue to exist as a democracy--but in such a way as is sufficient for them to have a better constitution--to invent that (τοῦτο) is not easy."  ὅπερ ἄρτι εἶπον· "as I said just a moment ago".

            (III.10) τοὺς ταὐτὰ γιγνώσκοντας σφίσιν αὐτοῖς· "those having the same policy with themselves" (i.e. with the demos).  Athens did, of course, support democracies in other cities (i.e. until 411 when she herself became oligarchical).  All the events referred to by name (here and in III.11) occurred in the 450's and 440's.

            (III.11) οὐ συνήνεγκεν αὐτοῖς· "it was not to their advantage".

            (III.12) οὐκ ὀλίγων δεῖ τῶν ἐπιθησομένων τῇ δξμοκρατίᾳ τῇ Ἀθήνασιν· the genitive depends on δεῖ ("there is need of"): "people who are going to attack the democracy at Athens need to be many".

            The argument here (III.12-13) is rather hard to follow.  Basically it is that although some Athenians have been, in fact, unjustly disenfranchised, they have been very few; therefore at Athens the disenfranchised (who were such a cause of mischief in some other cities) do not constitute a large "class" that threatens the democracy. 

            (III.13) οὐδὲν ἐνθυμεῖσθαι· the inf. is governed by δεῖ supplied in thought, and οὐδέν is adverbial; lit. "it is necessary to consider not at all", "i.e. "one should take no account of".